Santé Environnement

Effets cocktail, l’impact sanitaire des polluants en mélange

Dès le début des années 90, l’impact sanitaire des substances chimiques en mélange a été questionné “What is synergy?”[1]. Depuis il est acquis que des composés chimiques peuvent interagir entre eux. Ainsi la question de leurs impacts sanitaires et environnementaux, est devenue prioritaire. Cinq modes d’action ont été décrits pour essayer de prédire les effets des substances en mélange [3]. Ainsi on peut observer :

  • Un effet additif : en mélange, les effets des composés chimiques peuvent s’ajouter les uns aux autres
  • Un effet synergique: où les composés chimiques en mélange,  peuvent amplifier les effets toxiques de chacun
  • Un effet de potentialisation: un composé chimique ne présente pas de toxicité particulière, mais en présence d’autres substances, il va être activé
  • Un effet antagoniste: les effets d’un composé chimique sont contrebalancés par les effets d’une autre substance
  • Un effet d’indépendance: les substances chimiques en mélange n’interagissent pas entre elles (effet indépendant)

Illustration des effets cocktails

 

Actuellement, afin de prédire les effets toxiques d’un mélange, on se base sur la similarité des composés [2]. Il peut s’agir d’une :

  • similarité dans la structure chimique
  • similarité dans le mode d’action
  • similarité dans les effets induits

D’après ce consensus scientifique, dès lors que des substances chimiques ne présentent aucune similarité entre elles,  on peut considérer qu’en mélange le risque est acceptable.

Néanmoins ce consensus soulève une question fondamentale : combien de substances chimiques peuvent interagir entre elles ?

 

Biblio:

[1] Berenbaum, MC. What is synergy? Pharmacol Rev, 1989, 41: 93-141.

[2] Colloque « Chemical mixtures : challenges for research and risk assessment », initié par l’ANSES et avec le partenariat de BfR et DTU Food, les 10 & 11 décembre 2013.

[3]Fernandes, TF, Assessing Hazard and Risk (lectures), Edinburgh Napier University, 2010.

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